Was aus Liebe getan wird, geschieht immer jenseits von Gut und Böse.

I understand the meaning here, but this word is also frequently used to describe geographic locations, like saying something is beyond or across or on the other side of something, like “jenseits des Flusses” or “jenseits der Berge”?

Yes, “jenseits” is a synonym for “on the other side” and you can use it for physical locations.