What do you think, doctor?
is closer to “How is it going?” 感じ literally means “feeling” or “ambience”.
The Japanese original sentence suggests that a patient is asking the progress of the doctor’s diagnostic analysis. As a result, it can also be interpreted as “What would be the result of your diagnosis? Did you find anything that I have to concern about?” This is a good free translation, but probably hard for non-Japanese native speakers to understand such a highly contextual sentence.