la djim nu'o zvati lo drata gugde

English Translation

Jim has never been abroad.

In Lojban, the sentence “la djim nu’o zvati lo drata gugde” can be broken down into several parts for better understanding. Each word (or morpheme) in Lojban typically represents a specific grammatical or semantic function.

First, let’s go word by word:

  1. “la” - used to mark a proper noun or a name. It specifies that what follows is a name.
  2. “djim” - This would be the Lojbanized version of the name “Jim.” Lojban often modifies names to fit its phonotactic constraints.
  3. “nu’o” - This is a modal verb, which expresses ability or potential, and it forms part of the “nu’o” modal construction, which implies the potential or capability to do something.
  4. “zvati” - This is a verb meaning “to be at” or “to be present at.” It is the main verb of the sentence.
  5. “lo” - This is an article used to indicate that what follows is a noun (or more precisely, a selbri turned into a sumti by “lo”). It’s similar to “the” in English, but it doesn’t indicate definiteness; rather, it indicates some unspecified member of the set indicated by the following noun.
  6. “drata” - This is a verb or relational noun meaning “different” or “other.”
  7. “gugde” - This is a noun meaning “country” or “nation.”

Now, let’s put it all together:

  • “la djim” might typically translate to “the one named Jim” or just “Jim.”
  • “nu’o zvati” translates to “can be present at” or “has the potential to be at.”
  • “lo drata gugde” translates to “another country” or “a different country.”

So, “la djim nu’o zvati lo drata gugde” would be translated to English as “Jim is able to be in another country” or “Jim has the potential to be in a different country.”