Er wurde des Mordes beschuldigt.

What is the difference between “beschuldigt” and “angeklagt”? Is this a sort of legal difference like “beschuldigt”=“charged” and “angeklagt”=“indicted”? I.e. with “beschuldigt” the formal legal process hasn’t proceeded quite as far yet?

beschuldigen isn’t a legal term. Anyone could say you’ve convicted a murder (beschuldigen) but only if the prosecutor says so to, you’re indicted (angeklagt).